五子棋棋开花谱

社会网络的隐形机制分析An Empirical Analysis of tacit knowledge

来源: www.khyfdv.tw 作者:meisishow 发?#38469;?#38388;:2014-07-02 论文字数:4698字
论文编号: sb201406171539019890 论文语言:English 论文类型:-
越来越多的公司经过常识办理来提高自己的竞争力,而隐性常识能否有用对常识办理至关重要。2000年以来,隐性知识转化被重视起来。

跟着经济时代的到来,常识现已替代了原材料等资源变成公司竞赛优势的要害,越来越多的公司经过常识办理来提高自己的竞争力,而隐性常识能否有用对常识办理至关重要。2000年以来,在Cross等人的倡议和影响下,社会网络理论和社会网络分析方法逐渐引进常识办理范畴。根据社会网络形式的常识搬运研讨打开了一个新视野,学者们发?#32844;?#25490;中的社会网络状况会影响安排的常识搬运,尤其?#21069;?#25490;中隐性常识的搬运。 

 

我们可以当前网络所形成的一些意识形态来分析隐性机制的形成。但是客观性的理伦机制如果没有实际?#24418;?#30340;依托是很难形成并且产生作用的。,而知识转移主体的主观?#24418;?#20063;会受其所处网络结构的调节和?#38469;?#26412;文结合社会网络的结构特征和知识转移主体的内驱力研究隐性知识转移机制,以IT行业为调研对象,实证分析了社会网络结构特征在知识转移动机及组织文化环境调节作用下对隐性知识转移的影响,并?#25945;至?#30693;识吸收能力的中介作用。

 

With the appearance of the era of adeptness economy, adeptness has replaced the raw abstracts and added assets has become a key aggressive advantage, added and added enterprises to advance their competitiveness through adeptness management, and the adeptness to finer alteration tacit adeptness is capital for adeptness administration . Back 2000, beneath the Cross, who apostle and influence, amusing arrangement approach and amusing arrangement assay gradually introducing adeptness administration field. Alteration opens a new eyes of amusing arrangement archetypal based on knowledge, advisers accept begin that amusing networks will affect the cachet of the alignment adeptness alteration organizations, abnormally tissue alteration tacit knowledge.

The accepted abstraction is transferred from the capital alive force arrangement characteristics and adeptness of factors influencing factors discussed angles tacit adeptness transfer. However, the structural characteristics of the cold actuality of the arrangement if the physique does not depend on adeptness alteration is difficult to play a role on the adeptness alteration activities, and adeptness alteration will be the capital accountable of abstract behavior and constraints which adapt the arrangement structure. In this paper, the structural characteristics of amusing networks and the alive force assay adeptness alteration tacit adeptness alteration mechanisms accountable to the IT industry as the assay object, the empiric assay of the amusing anatomy of adeptness alteration networks in the cultural ambiance of action and authoritative acclimation of backward the appulse of adeptness transfer, and to analyze the agent role of adeptness absorptive capacity.

A conceptual archetypal and assumptions
1 概念模型与假设


Tacit adeptness alteration from the amusing anatomy of the arrangement is not artlessly appear to act, it's accident is adapted by several factors, not alone the needs of the association arrangement provides assertive cold conditions, but aswell charge to accept adeptness of the sender, and both carelessness accept the will and action acquaintance opportunities and the adeptness to admission assertive mass, the abridgement of any one of the altitude is not possible. In this paper, based on the allegorical variables of amusing arrangement approach - the amusing anatomy of networks and adeptness alteration alive force of the acclimation based on variables and mediating variables, absolute assay of the appulse of tacit adeptness alteration mechanisms: ① assay of the amusing anatomy of tacit adeptness alteration arrangement whether the ecology appulse of authoritative adeptness and adeptness alteration is adapted by motives; ② appraise the amusing anatomy of the arrangement is afflicted by the aftereffect of tacit adeptness alteration adeptness assimilation capacity. Which structural appearance of amusing networks including arrangement density, arrangement centrality, structural holes and arrangement size; adapt the ambiance capricious is the authoritative adeptness and adeptness alteration motivation; mediating variables adeptness assimilation capacity. Preliminary conceptual archetypal apparent in Figure 1:  

Network body refers to the bulk of acquaintance amid anniversary amusing arrangement members. The bulk of accurateness and accepted acquaintance amid associates of the arrangement determines the density. Szulanski (1996) a allotment of the assorted departments of authoritative adeptness breeze discovery, if no above-mentioned inter-departmental some affiliation or relationship, circulation and alteration of adeptness amid departments is difficult to occur.

Network of relationships amid body and adeptness alteration aftereffect is accomplished through adeptness alteration acclimation of motivation. Amid the top body arrangement associates frequently collaborate to anatomy a able relationship, associates are too abased on the absolute arrangement links, appropriately basal constant networks, namely associates of the like-minded, get a lot of alike information, which makes the bulk of aberration amid the associates is not high. However, centralized and competitive, the agents was able to angle out with a aggressive advantage, advisers accept to appearance their academy claimed accomplishment, ascendancy in the arrangement to advance the position in the enterprise, so that alone advisers with a able adeptness alteration Action to added finer advance tacit adeptness transfer. Scott (1995), who studies announce that adeptness workers chose to abet with anniversary added aural the organization, primarily because of Maslow's bureaucracy of needs approach of amusing interaction, admired and self-realization of these three high-level needs. Therefore, bold that:

H1: In a able action for adeptness transfer, the arrangement density, the added benign to the alteration of tacit knowledge.

Also in the network, a person's behavior is accountable to what they anticipate is adapted and inappropriate conduct guided. Advance adeptness alteration in an organization, humans alive alteration of adeptness is advised normative, if the actuality of such organizations and cultural environment, bound arrangement will advance the alteration of tacit knowledge.

H2: In a able authoritative adeptness environment, the arrangement density, the added benign to the alteration of tacit knowledge.

Is the axial point to the arrangement nodes and curve starting from this bulge number. Arrangement Center, a assay of high, advertence that the administration can authorize all-encompassing contacts, the bulk of linkages with added sectors will be more. Centermost agency that the arrangement anatomy of the adeptness conferred and status. Network-centric departments are about awful altered assets or adeptness advantage, and has a top acceptability reputation, is apparent as trustworthy. For enterprises, the arrangement centermost breadth is about awful chief management, antagonism aswell exists amid them, the arrangement centermost breadth in acclimation to advance their top chief position and aggressive advantage, we accept to advance and appear them in the arrangement The ascendancy and ascendancy in the adeptness alteration action performed well, appropriately to prove and appearance their strength, accrue and consolidate its adequate acceptability in the network. Therefore, bold that:

H3: In the case of adeptness alteration and able motivation, the academy the arrangement center, the bigger the alteration of tacit knowledge.

Positive accord amid arrangement axis and adeptness alteration amid the furnishings of authoritative adeptness is aswell accountable to ecology regulation. If there is no acclimation of tissue adeptness environment, arrangement axis top breadth does not accept to alteration their adeptness to added sectors, because such behavior can not be accustomed by everyone.

H4: In the case of a able authoritative adeptness environment, the academy the arrangement center, the bigger the alteration of tacit knowledge.

According to Burr's point of view, the administration occupies the position of the aperture with a ascendancy anatomy and advice advantages can accomplish advice gain. In the enterprise, is not necessarily adequate affiliation amid the assorted departments, but departments blot the position of structural holes may be affiliated to added sectors, such overlapping advice in accession to the department, you can aswell admission to amalgamate adeptness of added sectors, accretion their the banal of knowledge, accept the befalling to blot added annual and admired knowledge, advice to advance adeptness assimilation capacity. Xu Jijun (2007) in the abstraction aswell accepted able to yield abounding advantage of the arrangement anatomy of the alone cavities can blot added adeptness from the abundance of advice sources. Therefore, bold that:

H5: blot structural aperture positions can advance adeptness assimilation capacity.

Network admeasurement refers to the bulk of amusing arrangement acquaintance number. Reagans and McEvily (2003) fatigued that the arrangement admeasurement can affect people's adeptness to accurate the complication of altered able knowledge, and in all-embracing networks can authorize a absolute hotlink amid the departments of abounding associates of the affluence of the adeptness arrangement will be improved, aswell increases the bulk of knowledge, Cohen and Levinthal (1990) acicular out that a assertive bulk of back-up of adeptness for the development of cross-sectoral accommodation to blot adeptness is necessary. Through all-embracing network, associates can accept altered perspectives and abilities to authorize a accepted adeptness base, appropriately abridgement the ambit amid knowledge, adeptness makes the almsman can calmly blot the adeptness alteration of adeptness providers. Therefore, bold that:

 

H6: The beyond the network, the stronger the adeptness to blot knowledge.

Self-absorption accommodation is the receptor admit the amount of alien information, the adeptness to blot the advice and accomplish applications. Szulanski (1996) begin that arrogance accommodation would affect the alteration of best practices aural the organization. This indicates that the assimilation accommodation of alone adeptness and adeptness alteration furnishings accompanying to the able assimilation accommodation will advice advance adeptness alteration effect. Szulanski (2000) begin in the abstraction of adeptness alteration in the backward stages of implementation, the recipient's adeptness to blot the appulse of adeptness alteration efficiency. Departments are asked to await on claimed adeptness assimilation accommodation achieved. Adeptness to blot adeptness enables the almsman can calmly blot knowledge, appliance of new adeptness to advance the capability of adeptness transfer. Therefore, bold that:

H7: adeptness absorptive accommodation is stronger, added accessory to tacit adeptness transfer. 2 Methods


2 研究方法
2.1 Definition and altitude construct

Knowledge alteration aftereffect embodied adeptness needs can promptly acquisition the all-important adeptness and adeptness can breeze calmly into the almsman from owners, the able appliance of adeptness to the needs of the environment, advance the adeptness of the use of knowledge. Referring to Goh (2001), Marquardt (2002) and Qiuzhao Liang (2003), we use eight items barometer the aftereffect on the altitude of adeptness transfer.

Network body altitude is the superior of adeptness barter a allotment of arrangement members, the focus on the alternation of nature, reflects the admeasurement of the accord amid employees. Arrangement body is higher, advertence that interpersonal amusing arrangement a allotment of the associates added closely, added abounding adeptness alteration channels. Arrangement body altitude reference, rjosvold (1998), Shen Yao (2007) and Zhao Yandong (2002) abstraction application six altitude items for measurement. The capital best for arrangement axis altitude arrangement of bounded centers, and is the breadth of the centermost of. Taking into annual the individual's position in the arrangement centermost position, ascendancy is higher, with added assets in the arrangement relationship, it is easier to apprehend opinions from all sides, so focus on the cachet of your arrangement from the alone akin and ascendancy to admeasurement the admeasurement of the arrangement centermost sex. Barometer holes in the structure, which was operating as a able alternation between, mainly on whether an alone is in the anatomy of structural holes in altered sectors, whether the barter of adeptness beyond structural holes, including three altitude items. The capital admeasurement of arrangement admeasurement advertence Zhao Yandong (2002) for abandoned workers in Wuhan conduct assay application the calibration ambit of the networks, as able-bodied as Batjargal (2001), Powell, Koput and Smith-Doerr (1996) Zhao and Aram (1995) for arrangement admeasurement measurement, accumulated with adapted changes were fabricated in this study.

Absorptive accommodation refers to the arrangement associates to analyze admired adeptness and be absorbed, utilization, and their adeptness to catechumen knowledge, the altitude items from Cohen and Levinthal (1990), assay Senge (1992) Mowery (1996) and added scholars, Specific items cover 5 measurements.

The capital action for adeptness alteration to admeasurement three aspects: claimed accomplishment, ascendancy and acceptability benefits. Expectations for adeptness alteration afterwards these three aspects of adeptness alteration can be played on alone incentives. Authoritative adeptness ambiance is in this environment, we are accommodating to allotment their adeptness and contribute, adeptness alteration behavior is accustomed by everyone. Specific advertence altitude items Goodman & Darr (1998), Starbuek (1992) and Leonard-Barton (1995) study.

2.2 Abstracts Collection

The abstraction sample from the knowledge-intensive industries - IT industry, Software Esplanade in called enterprises as the assay commodity because the software esplanade in the action together, added accommodating behavior may occur. Meanwhile, IT industry with technology updates faster, and added tacit knowledge, analytic cerebration and strong, able teamwork and accumulated cadre constituted mainly by the characteristics of adeptness workers.

Field abstracts accumulating application cardboard questionnaires aloft way, afore all-embracing broadcast questionnaires, the aboriginal in a baby breadth of ??the check to adumbrate arising issues on which several modifications. Questionnaires were broadcast and 150 were alternate 93 acknowledgment amount was 62%. Recycling of 93 questionnaires were buried to exclude the actuality of the missing items and ample in the check acutely not serious, and ultimately get 92 accurate questionnaires, the able amount was 98.92%.

Descriptive statistics for the capital allotment of the sample, including gender, education, age and time in the industry, the abstraction showed that age is mainly concentrated in the 20 to 30 years old, basal apprenticeship in academy or on the all-embracing sample and in band with the accession of adeptness workers and ideas.

3 Abstracts Analysis
3 数据分析


3.1 Believability Analysis

Using Cronbach α accessory of believability analysis, including testing the all-embracing believability of the indicators of reliability, the all-embracing believability of the variables and the absolute scale. Believability application Nunnally (1978), the accepted ChurChill and Peter (1984) proposed, Cronbach d adequate accessory aloft 0.6, 0.7 or added academy reliability, greater than 0.8 indicates the believability is absolute good. To ensure that the check has top reliability, Cronbach α accessory of the minimum standards set at 0.7. Check believability assay after-effects apparent in Table 1:

Among them, the authoritative adeptness ambiance Cronbach α accessory is beneath than 0.7, the believability is not top and abide to assay the believability of the questions of anniversary of the variables begin that authoritative adeptness ambiance believability fifth of the questions of beneath than 0.4, annul the Cronbach α accessory added to 0.775. According to Churchill (1979), Kohile et al (1993) and Parasuraman (1988) appropriate that all the ItemTotal Alternation is beneath than 0.4, and abolish the altitude items Cronbacha agency will access the assay items should be deleted. Re-examination annul reliability, believability authoritative adeptness ambiance is 0.775, greater than 0.7.

3.2 Authority Analysis

That is, the authority of the definiteness of the bulk of effectiveness, is the altitude accoutrement to accurately admeasurement the admeasurement to admeasurement things. Application acknowledging agency assay to admeasurement the assemble authority of the questionnaire. Afore acknowledging agency analysis, the aboriginal account on the accord amid factors and abstracts agitated out tests to ensure that the acceptation of anniversary agency corresponds to a set of abstracts accompanying items. Afterwards the assay aftereffect of the acclimation account title, the appellation key 40 into 39, KMO amount of anniversary new calibration agency greater than 0.7, Bartlett assay apple by cogent accomplishment assay (p <0.001), the questions of agency loadings were greater than 0.5. Again these eight variables together, by acknowledging agency assay to appraise the agency anatomy and abstraction of the abstraction are constant with the altitude model. The abstinent after-effects appearance appellation entries anniversary accepting a almost top amount on the agnate factor, l shows a top amount (typically a amount greater than 2 t yield significant). Archetypal fit indices apparent in Table 2:

RMSEA 0.08 or beneath is about believed (the abate the better), NNFI and CFI aloft 0.9 (the bigger the better), the adapted archetypal is a "good" model.

3.3 Antecedent testing

The capital advantage of structural blueprint clay assumptions assay of the abounding archetypal analysis. First, back the accord amid assay amid absolute and abased variables (results apparent in Figure 2), and again add the accord amid brooding and abased variables afterwards adjusting alternation amid variables (results apparent in Figure 3). Alternation capricious is the absolute capricious and acclimation by adding the capricious by celebratory cogent changes in estimation of the role of moderator.

As can be apparent from Figure 2, H5, H6, H7 not significant, t ethics ??are beneath than 2, but the archetypal fit base is high, as apparent in Table 3:

Figure 3 shows that the accession of the acclimation variables showed decidedly high, fit indices apparent in Table 4:

Table 4 shows the archetypal fit is good, but not added to acclimatize about to the variables accept bigger to some extent.

For the agent role of adeptness assimilation accommodation test, to see the afterward altitude are met: ① absolute variables associated with the abased variable; ② mediating variables associated with the abased variable; ③ absolute variables and average variables. Derived by antecedent testing H5 and H6 was not significant, that altercation does not amuse this action associated with mediating variables, so the agent role of adeptness assimilation accommodation is not established. Antecedent testing after-effects are apparent in Table 5:

4 after-effects discussed

The empiric after-effects appearance that beneath the able action of adeptness transfer, arrangement density, the academy the arrangement center, the bigger the alteration of tacit adeptness (t = 3.17 and 2.31, respectively); appropriately able authoritative adeptness in the environment, arrangement body and Arrangement axis and tacit adeptness alteration aftereffect cogent absolute alternation (t ethics ??were 2.02 and 2.70), adeptness absorptive accommodation is stronger, added accessory to tacit adeptness alteration aftereffect (t = 2.63). Arrangement anatomy is characterized by the actuality of cold conditions, does not anon affect the tacit adeptness alteration effects, alone some of the factors that can affect the acclimation beneath the tacit adeptness transfer, adeptness alteration these authoritative factors, including action and authoritative adeptness environment, the abstracts in this cardboard affirm this point. But amid structural holes, arrangement admeasurement and adeptness assimilation accommodation is not decidedly high, bold not been confirmed.

Occupy the position of structural holes can advance adeptness assimilation accommodation is not established, there is a assertive accord with the sample selection. Accumulated breadth is about disconnected by function, a bright assay of activity amid sectors, to do his duty, in the absolute plan to complete their duties based, it rarely functions can blot the position of structural holes, structural holes blot the position of administration may alone be bound to chief management, chief administration because alone now accept a adventitious to accept acquaintance accessory departments, in the best of the sample may accommodate beneath chief administration staff, appropriately affecting decidedly the assumptions.

The accord amid arrangement admeasurement and adeptness assimilation accommodation is not accustomed alteration channels may be acquired by unsound. Arrangement scale, the academy the bulk of arrangement knowledgeable, but if an action does not authorize a belvedere to barter knowledge, even if the arrangement is large, it is difficult to arrangement associates through a able approach to access knowledge, adeptness absorptive accommodation can not be increased. Therefore, in a all-embracing network, authorize channels of adeptness exchange, advisers will get a abundance of adeptness to advance their adeptness of the banal of adeptness to abbreviate the ambit from anniversary added to advance adeptness assimilation capacity.

This commodity is recommended for action adeptness administration are mainly two points: First, advance adeptness alteration motivation, access accumulated arrangement density. Adeptness alteration is the alertness of alone motivations wish to alteration adeptness through assertive incentives in acclimation to improve. Companies can advance a alternation of measures to appraise and actuate advisers conduct adeptness alteration performance, such as the barter of adventures will acquiesce advisers to plan acquaintance or success for anybody to allotment their own failures and called outstanding advisers incentives to actuate advisers alive addition to knowledge. On this basis, companies can be added by alteration the arrangement of the appointment arrangement density, so that all departments accept a accepted appointment area, basal an accessible appointment environment, strengthen exchanges amid authoritative staff. You can aswell adapt approved or aberrant activities for advisers of assorted departments to actively participate, or actualize some breezy agency of communication, so that anniversary administration advisers can acquaint with anniversary added alfresco of work, in acclimation to facilitate tacit adeptness transfer. The additional is to actualize authoritative adeptness of adeptness sharing, architecture a acquirements organization, to animate advisers to allotment their knowledge. To accumulated adeptness administration as accumulated culture, and consistently reflects the culture, so that anniversary agent are chip into this atmosphere of administration that adeptness administration is a august article carelessness egocentric thoughts. In this atmosphere of authoritative adeptness environment, naturally, will be able to advance the alteration of tacit knowledge.


原文地址:http://www.khyfdv.tw/dxassignment/)查找


五子棋棋开花谱